Subatomic Particles Ė particles smaller than an atom



 (reference table)


(reference table)



Ex) Neutrino Ė no charge and less mass than electron!! (Travel close to speed of light!!!!)


Did you know ...

Sun produces so many neutrinos


that 70 billion neutrinos pass through every cm2 (0.15 in2) of the surface of Earth
 every second. 



Meson Ė mass somewhere between an electron and proton


 - made of a quark and an anti-quark







An electron is a lepton






Name that Nuclear Reaction!!!














Baryons - relatively larger subatomic particles


ex) Protons, neutrons & hyperons (mass greater than neutron)


Baryons are made of smaller particles called quarks (see ref.)



3 Quarks make up
every Baryon



Ex 1)

A lithium atom consists of 3 protons, 4 neutrons, and 3 electrons. This atom contains a total of

a) 9 quarks and 7 leptons
b) 12 quarks and 6 leptons
14 quarks and 3 leptons
21 quarks and 3 leptons




3 p and 4 n each made of 3 quarks

3 electrons, means 3 leptons

d)21 quarks and 3 leptons





Each subatomic particle
has an "antiparticle"




(same mass, opposite charge)





The ďantiparticleĒ of an electron
is called a positron





  e     e





Ex 2)

During beta decay, a neutron decays into a proton, an electron, and an electron antineutrino. During this process there is a conversion of a


n --> p + e + neutrino


(1) u quark to a d quark

(2) d quark to a meson

(3) baryon to another baryon

(4) lepton to another lepton




(3) baryon (neutron) to
another baryon (proton)




Ex 3) Which combination of quarks could produce a neutral baryon?


(1) cdt   (2) cts
(3) cdb  (4) cdu





(3) cdb


charm +2/3

down -1/3

bottom -1/3

Sum = 0




Ex 4) Which combination of quarks would produce a neutral baryon?


(1) uud (2) udd (3) -u-ud (4) -udd





(2) udd     

up: +2/3 

down -1/3

down  -1/3

(Sum = 0)







What does this symbol mean?






Anti Up Quark


Same size as an up,
opposite sign (-2/3)




What are we really made of?

[Morgan Freeman]
 So, what are we really made of?
Dig deep inside the atom
and youíll find tiny particles
Held together by invisible forces
Everything is made up
Of tiny packets of energy
Born in cosmic furnaces
[Frank Close]
The atoms that weíre made of have
Negatively charged electrons
Whirling around a big bulky nucleus
[Michio Kaku]
The Quantum Theory
Offers a very different explanation
Of our world
[Brian Cox]
The universe is made of 
Twelve particles of matter
Four forces of nature
Thatís a wonderful and significant story
[Richard Feynman]
Suppose that little things
Behaved very differently
Than anything big
Nothingís really as it seems
Itís so wonderfully different
Than anything big
The world is a dynamic mess
Of jiggling things
Itís hard to believe
The quantum theory
Is so strange and bizarre
Even Einstein couldnít get his head around it
In the quantum world
The world of particles
Nothing is certain
Itís a world of probabilities
Itís very hard to imagine
All the crazy things
That things really are like
Electrons act like waves
No they donít exactly
They act like particles
No they donít exactly
[Stephen Hawking]
We need a theory of everything
Which is still just beyond our grasp
We need a theory of everything, perhaps
The ultimate triumph of science
I gotta stop somewhere
Iíll leave you something to imagine

Read the full text here: http://www.mentalfloss.com/blogs/archives/ 
--brought to you by mental_floss! 




Plotting Review

Why did this student only get 1 point out
of 2 on his Physics Regents?

The students was under the high points
and over the low points.





Identify these 4 elements

School Blocks YouTube? Use the link below.









Image taken by Peggy Parigoris at Brookhaven National Laboratory.


You can learn a lot about the parts of a nucleus by creating a high speed collision between two nuclei and observing the resulting debris. Since the collision is made to occur within a magnetic field, we are able to identify the charges of the subatomic particles produced by observing the direction in which they curve.





Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider
- Analyzing the Collision Image 




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